A Personal Message from Alan Chapman (Businesballs founder/owner)

My partner and soulmate Liane Ashberry died in April 2015. Shortly before Liane died we finished four years of writing and recording an album of original songs. The album is called Ploughed Heart, by Rude Angel (released 9th October) - we were a little amateur trio, now a duo. Our songs - especially Liane's beautiful lyrics and vocals - were mainly inspired by Liane's loss of her daughter Ella age 11 to bone cancer in 2009, together with Liane's extraordinary love, fun, spirituality and generosity in life. The songs are variously touching, uplifting, sad, etc., and some people seem to love them. After losing Ella, Liane raised over £60,000 for bone cancer research and children's cancer treatment facilities. She was the most selfless giving person I have ever known. Proceeds of our album will as far as possible go to Liane's charities, extended now to mental health and suicide reduction, because sadly Liane took her own life. The devastation is beyond words. If you can support us in any way I would be hugely grateful. See our band's website www.rudeangel.co.uk, and our facebook page. You can hear all the songs free at Soundcloud. There is a Youtube video of the single 'Rhythm of Sound' from the album. To promote the album, please sign up to our 'Thunderclap' which will announce the album on 24th October to all of your Facebook/Twitter contacts. Thank you so much. Love to you all, Alan Chapman xxx.

P.S. If you wish to send a message please post a comment or like us on our Facebook page, or share something about us, or follow/retweet us on Twitter, or help spread the word in some other way. Thanks.

tuckman forming storming norming performing model

Bruce Tuckman's 1965 Forming Storming Norming Performing team-development model

Dr Bruce Tuckman published his Forming Storming Norming Performing model in 1965. He added a fifth stage, Adjourning, in the 1970s. The Forming Storming Norming Performing theory is an elegant and helpful explanation of team development and behaviour (US spelling: behavior). Similarities can be seen with other models, such as Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum and especially with Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership® model, developed about the same time.

Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached. At this point the team may produce a successor leader and the previous leader can move on to develop a new team. This progression of team behaviour and leadership style can be seen clearly in the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum - the authority and freedom extended by the leader to the team increases while the control of the leader reduces. In Tuckman's Forming Storming Norming Performing model, Hersey's and Blanchard's Situational Leadership® model and in Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Continuum, we see the same effect, represented in three ways.

See also leadership tips and leadership theories, both of which relate strongly to understanding and managing groups.

The Conscious Competence learning model, together with Kolb's learning cycle theory, and the JoHari Window model all provide helpful additional ways to learn and to teach others about Tuckman's ideas and their applications.


tuckman's forming storming norming performing four-stage model

The progression is:

  1. forming
  2. storming
  3. norming
  4. performing

Here are the features of each phase:

forming - stage 1

High dependence on leader for guidance and direction. Little agreement on team aims other than received from leader. Individual roles and responsibilities are unclear. Leader must be prepared to answer lots of questions about the team's purpose, objectives and external relationships. Processes are often ignored. Members test tolerance of system and leader. Leader directs (similar to Situational Leadership® 'Telling' mode).

storming - stage 2

Decisions don't come easily within group. Team members vie for position as they attempt to establish themselves in relation to other team members and the leader, who might receive challenges from team members. Clarity of purpose increases but plenty of uncertainties persist. Cliques and factions form and there may be power struggles. The team needs to be focused on its goals to avoid becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues. Compromises may be required to enable progress. Leader coaches (similar to Situational Leadership® 'Selling' mode).

norming - stage 3

Agreement and consensus largely forms among the team, who respond well to facilitation by leader. Roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted. Big decisions are made by group agreement. Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within group. Commitment and unity is strong. The team may engage in fun and social activities. The team discusses and develops its processes and working style. There is general respect for the leader and some of leadership is more shared by the team. Leader facilitates and enables (similar to the Situational Leadership® 'Participating' mode).

performing - stage 4

The team is more strategically aware; the team knows clearly why it is doing what it is doing. The team has a shared vision and is able to stand on its own feet with no interference or participation from the leader. There is a focus on over-achieving goals, and the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed with the leader. The team has a high degree of autonomy. Disagreements occur but now they are resolved within the team positively, and necessary changes to processes and structure are made by the team. The team is able to work towards achieving the goal, and also to attend to relationship, style and process issues along the way. Team members look after each other. The team requires delegated tasks and projects from the leader. The team does not need to be instructed or assisted. Team members might ask for assistance from the leader with personal and interpersonal development. Leader delegates and oversees (similar to the Situational Leadership® 'Delegating' mode).


tuckman's forming storming norming performing model

tuckman forming storming performing norming

Better quality diagrams are available as separate files:

Tuckman 'forming storming' diagram (doc format)

Tuckman 'forming storming' diagram (pdf format)

(Thanks S Doran for suggestion. And thanks also C Lloyd for pointing out the error in these diagrams, duly corrected Aug 2008 - storming and norming were inverted.)


Tuckman's fifth stage - Adjourning

Bruce Tuckman refined his theory around 1975 and added a fifth stage to the Forming Storming Norming Performing model - he called it Adjourning, which is also referred to as Deforming and Mourning. Adjourning is arguably more of an adjunct to the original four stage model rather than an extension - it views the group from a perspective beyond the purpose of the first four stages. The Adjourning phase is certainly very relevant to the people in the group and their well-being, but not to the main task of managing and developing a team, which is clearly central to the original four stages.

adjourning - stage 5

Tuckman's fifth stage, Adjourning, is the break-up of the group, hopefully when the task is completed successfully, its purpose fulfilled; everyone can move on to new things, feeling good about what's been achieved. From an organizational perspective, recognition of and sensitivity to people's vulnerabilities in Tuckman's fifth stage is helpful, particularly if members of the group have been closely bonded and feel a sense of insecurity or threat from this change. Feelings of insecurity would be natural for people with high 'steadiness' attributes (as regards the 'four temperaments' or DISC model) and with strong routine and empathy style (as regards the Benziger thinking styles model, right and left basal brain dominance).


Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership® model

hersey situational leadership model

The classic Situational Leadership® model of management and leadership style also illustrates the ideal development of a team from immaturity (stage 1) through to maturity (stage 4) during which management an leadership style progressively develops from relatively detached task-directing (1), through the more managerially-involved stages of explanation (2) and participation (3), to the final stage of relatively detached delegation (4), at which time ideally the team is largely self-managing, and hopefully contains at least one potential management/leadership successor.

The aim of the leader or manager is therefore to develop the team through the four stages, and then to move on to another role.

Ironically this outcome is feared by many managers. However, good organizations place an extremely high value on leaders and managers who can achieve this.

The model also illustrates four main leadership and management styles, which a good leader is able to switch between, depending on the situation (i.e., the team's maturity relating to a particular task, project or challenge.)

Situational Leadership® is a trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies, which represents the interests and products of Dr Paul Hersey. Ken Blanchard (who incidentally wrote 'The One Minute Manager') went on to develop the Situational Leadership® system into what he called Situational Leadership II®, and which now covers a range of products marketed by his organization, The Ken Blanchard Companies.

Use of material relating to Situational Leadership® and/or Situational Leadership II® requires licence and agreement from the respective companies. See more detail in leadership theories.


Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum

The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum also correlates in a way to the models above - essentially that management style tends to offer more freedom as the group matures.

The diagonal line loosely equates to the dotted line on the other two models. As the team matures and becomes more self-sufficient and self-directing, so the manager's style should react accordingly, ideally becoming more detached, more delegating, encouraging and enabling the group to run itself, and for a successor (or if you are a good manager or a lucky one, for more than one successor) to emerge.

tannenbaum and schmidt continuum

See the Tannenbum and Schmidt page for more detailed notes about this model. And see more detail in leadership theories.


This simple overview of the Tuckman forming storming performing norming model offers a simple easy way to understand how groups develop.

Tuckman's model is especially helpful in training people about group work because it relates so obviously to many other theories about how groups develop.

For example see the Johari Window model, which can assist the process of mutual awareness development that is a major aspect within Tuckman's model, and in the development of effective groups.

For an additional and useful perspective on human development - especially concerning group members of different ages - see also Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory.

The personality models and theories section explores behaviour and style of individuals, with obvious implications for managing groups, as does the learning styles and multiple intelligences section.

see also


Situational Leadership® is a trademark of the Centre for Leadership Studies. Situational Leadership II® is a trademark of The Ken Blanchard Companies. Use of material relating to Situational Leadership® and/or Situational Leadership II® requires licence and agreement from the respective companies.

© Bruce Tuckman 1965 original 'Forming-storming-norming-performing' concept; Alan Chapman 2001-2013 review and code.

Please see additional referencing/usage terms below.