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WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?The action of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability to do this - Oxford English Dictionary.
LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENTLeadership is more about change, inspiration, setting the purpose and direction, and building the enthusiasm, unity and 'staying-power' for the journey ahead. Management is less about change, and more about stability and making the best use of resources to get things done.
b) Behavioural ideals leadership models'Behavioural Ideals' leadership models concentrate on what researchers believe are the most effective behaviours as a leader. The notable model in this category is Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid.
c) Situational / Contingency leadership models'Situational' (or 'Contingency') leadership models are based on the idea that the leader's actions should vary according to the circumstances he or she is facing - in other words leadership methods change according to the 'situation' in which the leader is leading. This category includes most notably: Kurt Lewin's Three Styles model; Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Leadership Continuum model; the Fiedler Contingency model; House's Path-Goal theory; Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership® model; and Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame model.
d) Functional leadership modelsFunctional types of leadership models focus on what the leader has to do. Unlike the Behavioural Ideals approach, Functional leadership models do not suggest ideal ways of behaving, nor do they match behaviours to circumstances like Situational/Contingency theory. Instead, Functional leadership models focus on the action areas that a leader must address to be effective. The most notable Functional models are John Adair's Action-Centred Leadership, and Kouzes & Posner's Five Leadership Practices.
e) Integrated psychological leadership modelsThe Integrated Psychological leadership model is so called because it integrates the thinking behind the four other leadership models sub-groups, while also addressing the leader's inner psychology, which tends not to be considered in other more traditional or conventional types of leadership models. James Scouller's Three Levels of Leadership model arguably pioneers this category. Scouller's model can be regarded as a relatively new view of leadership.
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