ethical work and life learning
Free career help, business training, organizational development - inspirational, innovative ideas, materials, exercises, tools, templates - free and fun.
Send your feedback about anything, thank you.
Additions and updates are below.
did you know?..
Questioning is a powerful alternative to making statements.
A good question is often much better than a defensive remark, or a counter-accusation, for all sorts of situations. Using an open question (What...?, How...? especially) is a simple and effective technique for resisting forceful or bullying pressure. Using questions, rather than statements and guesses, is also very effective for building trust, diffusing conflict, understanding situations, managing other people, teaching, training, and parenting. Traditionally, questioning is regarded as mainly a selling skill, but it's powerful and productive in virtually every circumstance involving human cooperation.
Leadership is not confined to managers and official title-holders.
Anyone can be a leader - inspiring others, helping others, making a positive difference to someone or something.
Leadership is most effective and easiest when it is adaptable.
Explore different theories of leadership - they each offer adaptable methods, styles, etc.
Ethics and integrity are another crucial aspect of leadership, and sometimes this is more important than adaptability and technique.
Understanding leadership helps us be a better follower too, especially when someone leading us needs a bit of help..
What's the most powerful rule of negotiating?...
Have an alternative.
Be able to walk away.
This simple principle is often ignored, particularly because as buyers or sellers we all tend to focus and fixate on a single option, which quickly creates a dependence on it, which produces pressure (including time/deadline) to agree a deal, which weakens our position, and strengthens the position of the other side. Nudge theory helps us understand why we fixate on a single option, and why the apparent desirability of a single option increases.
See the rules of negotiating and other negotiating tips and techniques. Whatever you are buying or selling, these ideas will dramatically improve your results, and if you are buying or selling a house, they're worth thousands.
Aristotle's Three Modes of Persuasion model, devised over 2,300 years ago, offers a wonderfully simple and elegant way to understand and explain effective communications. The theory comprises three elements:
- Ethos - The integrity of the communicator.
- Pathos - The emotional effect (of communicator and message) on the listener/reader/audience.
- Logos - The relevance and strength of the message content.
We can separately consider communications from the standpoint of listening...
There are several different Levels of Listening - ranging from 'not really listening at all' through 'attentive listening' and ultimately to 'facilitative listening'. These and other different levels of listening entail:
- different degrees of empathy,
- different motives (of you, the listener),
- and offer different levels of effectiveness and outcomes.
People rarely use the highest levels of listening, which means that generally all of our communications can be vastly improved, whatever their purposes. The ways that we listen are fundamental to:
- achieving mutual understanding,
- resolving problems and disputes,
- diffusing conflict and tensions,
- buying, selling, and negotiating,
- building trust and relationships when managing, coaching, leading, teaching, and helping others,
- and optimizing our cooperations of all sorts with other people.
The Kirkpatrick Learning Evaluation model offers a simple, quick, easy and very powerful structure for planning all sorts of teaching, training and other developmental interventions, especially for designing inputs that produce measurable outcomes and results. Kirkpatrick's basic theory can be understood in just a few minutes, and can be applied to very many situations which entail helping individuals, groups and entire organizations to change.
Transactional Analysis is an amazingly revealing and helpful methodology for understanding and explaining the complexity of human communications. This extends especially to how people react in very different ways to a particular message/situation - and that this is often dependent on a person's mood and emotional security/strength at the time. Communications and reactions often contain at least two different meanings, for example serious and amusing, sad and funny, insulting and objective, caring and patronizing, or neglectful and respectful, etc. Transactional Analysis offers a model for interpreting these different meanings, and for managing people's unpredictable reactions (including our own) that arise frequently in the workplace and other relationships.
Pareto's 80-20 Theory is very useful for problem-solving, decision-making, downsizing, optimization, streamlining, and all sorts of evaluation and change, in business, organizations, and personal life too.
The Pareto Principle is based on disproportionate distribution, i.e., that in most situations the vast majority of effects/results are due to a relatively very small percentage of potential causes/options, for example:
- 20% of your time is spent achieving 80% of your success (the rest of your time is relatively unproductive or wasted).
- You probably wear 20% of your clothes 80% of the time.
- And 80% of problems arise from the same 20% causal factors.
Pareto's theory suggests that by understanding these disproportionate effects, in any situation, we can increase energies to optimize or protect the effective elements, and reduce or remove what is ineffective.
Erikson's Life-Stage Theory can be extremely helpful for:
- Understanding yourself, and how your priorities change through life.
- Understanding this in others.
- Teaching and exploring this with others.
- Understanding how to motivate and relate to people of different ages.
The 'Generational Nicknames Model' (Baby Boomers, Generation X, etc) offers a related and fascinating perspective to explore differences between people born in different historical periods, which is useful for:
- Understanding yourself, and how you are different from people born in other decades.
- Understanding relationships and mutual perceptions among people born in different decades.
- Teaching and and exploring these issues with others.
- Appreciating and explaining factors which can modify the application of other theories of personality and motivation that contain no historical/cultural aspect (as many do not).
The above 'Generational Nicknames Model' is a refreshing way to introduce and understand PEST Analysis - because both models entail consideration of Political, Environmental, Social, and Technological influences.
PEST is an acronym.
And the acronym is just one of scores of fascinating language curiosities and effects, which help bring spoken and written words to life.
Businessballs offers other useful glossaries too:
See additions and updates archive for more materials and random browsing.
Quizballs 324 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (18 Sep 2014)
Quizballs 323 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (10 Sep 2014)
Quizballs 322 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (4 Sep 2014)
Quizballs 321 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (27 Aug 2014)
'Company Quiz Game' Group Activity - a great flexible and simple group exercise for many situations - (27 Aug 2014)
An Opposite Ironic Meaning of the TEAM Acronym - a great way to introduce/discuss dilemmas of teamworking vs personal needs - (27 Aug 2014)
Quizballs 320 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (20 Aug 2014)
'One Small Change' Group Activity - for encouraging time-management change - (18 Aug 2014)
Quizballs 319 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (13 Aug 2014)
Quizballs 318 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (7 Aug 2014)
Pangrams - including the wonderful 'Go to the dungeon to batter the marital goose of doorframes' - (6 Aug 2014)
Quizballs 317 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (1 Aug 2014)
'How to Tie a Shoelace' Instructions Exercise - for training warm-ups and learning how to design processes and instructions/information for others - (1 Aug 2014)
Quizballs 316 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (23 Jul 2014)
The Aristotlian Contemplater's Half-Full/Half-Empty Glass - (19 Jul 2014)
Quizballs 315 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (17 Jul 2014)
Quizballs 314 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (10 Jul 2014)
Quizballs 313 - Tour de France and Cycling Quiz - 20 questions and answers - (3 Jul 2014)
Quizballs 312 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (26 Jun 2014)
Quizballs 311 - Football and World Cup Quiz - 20 questions and answers - (19 Jun 2014)
Pareto's 80-20 Rule Expanded - (14 Jun 2014)
Quizballs 310 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (11 Jun 2014)
Expanded 'Generational Nicknames/Types' Model and Theory - Baby Boomers, Generation X, etc - (10 Jun 2014)
Quizballs 309 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (5 Jun 2014)
Quizballs 308 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (29 May 2014)
Quizballs 307 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (21 May 2014)
Quizballs 306 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (15 May 2014)
More Amusing Puns - (15 May 2014)
Quizballs 305 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (7 May 2014)
Quizballs 304 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (1 May 2014)
More Amusing Puns - (24 April 2014)
Quizballs 303 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (24 Apr 2014)
Quizballs 302 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (17 Apr 2014)
Quizballs 301 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (10 Apr 2014)
Quizballs 300 - 25 general knowledge questions and answers - (3 Apr 2014)
Nudge Theory - fascinating methodology for change-management, leadership, etc - explanation, extensions, relation to other theories, how to teach, train, use - (31 Mar 2014)
Quizballs 299 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (28 Mar 2014)
Quizballs 298 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (20 Mar 2014)
Quizballs 297 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (13 Mar 2014)
Quizballs 296 - Nicknames, Expressions and Figures of Speech Quiz - 20 questions - (6 Mar 2014)
Quizballs 295 - Turkey Quiz - 30 questions and answers - (1 Mar 2014)
Presentations - Skills, Creating, Delivering, Overcoming Fears - section revised and improved - (28 Feb 2014)
Quizballs 294 - Indonesia Quiz - 30 questions and answers - (20 Feb 2014)
Quizballs 293 - Mexico Quiz - 30 questions and answers - (15 Feb 2014)
Quizballs 292 - Nigeria Quiz - 30 questions and answers - (8 Feb 2014)
Quizballs 291 - India Quiz - 30 questions and answers - (30 Jan 2014)
Quizballs 290 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (24 Jan 2014)
SWSWSWN Acronym - for selling, cold-calling, business, entrepreneurship, and life - (23 Jan 2014)
Toilet Paper Icebreaker Exercise - super group introductions ideas - (23 Jan 2014)
Quizballs 289 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (16 Jan 2014)
Quizballs 288 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (9 Jan 2014)
Quizballs 287 - 20 general knowledge questions and answers - (3 Jan 2014)
Quizballs quiz corrections are listed separately.
Businessballs is run by Alan Chapman, in Leicester, England.
For more information see:
The use of this material is free provided copyright (see below and/or on respective webpages) is acknowledged and reference or link is made to the www.businessballs.com or www.community.businessballs.com website source as appropriate. This material may not be sold, or published in any form without permission from the content owner. Disclaimer: Reliance on information, material, advice, or other linked or recommended resources, received from Alan Chapman, shall be at your sole risk, and Alan Chapman assumes no responsibility for any errors, omissions, or damages arising. Users of this website are encouraged to confirm information received with other sources, and to seek local qualified advice if embarking on any actions that could carry personal or organisational liabilities. Managing people and relationships are sensitive activities; the free material and advice available via this website do not provide all necessary safeguards and checks. When using these materials (especially for commercial training purposes) you must decide if your usage is 'fair use' within your local law relating to copyright. The free provision of these materials on this website does not imply that the works can be exploited for profit without seeking permission from respective owners of original concepts, theories and other intellectual property. If in doubt about your usage seek qualified advice and/or permission from the owner of the IP concerned. See www.businessballs.com/aboutus.htm for more details about the use of materials on this website. See for the separate terms and conditions for materials in the Businessballs Community. Please retain this notice on all copies.
© alan chapman 1995-2014