quick index

We have some very exciting plans for Businessballs. Very soon we will be launching a new visual identity, refreshing the design of the site and adding lots of new functionality to enhance your learning experience and the website's usefulness. Phase 2 will include badges, learning plans linked to accredited competency frameworks, wikis (for collaborative content development) and new content from international thought leaders and academics. The site will continue to follow our ethos of free work and life learning, and the redevelopment and ongoing management will be delivered by our partner Accipio. If you are interested in contributing content or your view on where we should take Businessballs next, please email ask@businessballs.com.

about businessballs

about businessballs, terms of use and cookie info

Businessballs is a free ethical learning and development resource for people and organizations, run by Alan Chapman, founded and based in Leicester UK.

Businessballs.com launched at the end of 1999. The concept began a few years earlier as an experimental online collection of learning and development ideas. The website is now used by about a million people each month. Alan originally created the Businessballs name for juggling balls in his training and development business.

The philosophy of the website is intended to be ethical, practical, innovative, compassionate and enjoyable.

Quizballs.com, a website dedicated to quizzes, operated by and extending the quizzes already available on Businessballs, was launched in October 2011.

cookie info and security

The only cookies in the Businessballs website are the usual cookies operated by Google, YouTube and Amazon, within their services/content/ads served to this site and also those used to obtain general visitor/site-use statistics. Businessballs does not use any other cookies on this website.

By using the Businessballs website you agree to the use of the cookies explained above, or you may opt out of or disable these cookies by adjusting the settings in your browser (typically in options or settings, and cookies or tracking), and/or by following the specific guidance offered by the organizations concerned, freely available online, enabling very many different options and controls.

Security - The Businessballs website is operated to extremely high security standards, which are constantly reviewed and maintained. These standards are higher than many 'certified' https websites, which in reality offer no real protections against hacking and malicious attack. No user login or personal details are required in using the Businessballs website, and there are no payments or financial transactions. No user data is grabbed or held. When and if it is deemed necessary to convert Businessballs to 'certified' https protocols we shall do so. Meanwhile you are more secure using Businessballs than most major websites with or without https 'certification'.


UK/US English Spelling: Many UK English spellings are different to American English. For example words ending with 'ise' and 'our', as in realise/realize and favour/favor. Generally UK-English spelling is used on Businessballs, although US-English is used on occasions where appropriate for the material, and also to aid searching.

There could of course be genuine spelling errors on the site for which I always welcome corrections.

Please send feedback about anything. See the contact us page.



Feedback is welcomed concerning the introduction of Google advertising on Businessballs, which commenced via the Google Adsense/Adwords programme on 8 August 2007. Testing/introduction of Google image ads began on 13 Sep 2011. The website needs to cover its costs and fund its development, and a discreet level of advertising seems the best way to achieve this. Hopefully the advertising will be appropriate and helpful. Thank you for your understanding and support, and if you wish please send your feedback about this. See this website's privacy statement for information, implications and options relating to Google's interest-based advertising practices.

Businessballs does not offer exchange links or paid-for text links.

Businessballs can consider direct advertising arrangements of suitable scale and duration.

guest writers/contributed content

The Businessballs website features many serious reference articles, training/learning materials, and other resources which have been produced in collaboration with experts in the subjects concerned.

Opportunities for 'guest writers' and 'contributed articles' are mainly where the subject is of substantial relevance to work/life learning and development, especially a theory or concept or methodology which is not already featured on the website, and the writer is an expert in the field concerned.

Businessballs is not a blogging website, and so does not publish 'blog-type' articles. Nor do we publish articles whose main purpose is 'SEO' (search engine optimization).

Besides the above, there are several sections of the website which feature smaller contributions, of serious or amusing nature, notably comments on certain theory development/application, the history and origins of certain concepts, ideas, terminology, etc., and contributions to glossaries and other collections and listings, for example acronyms, and original 'glass half-full/empty' quotes.

offers to buy this website

Businessballs is not for sale.

publishing requests

If you send me a brief clear outline of what is proposed I will do my best to give you quick general indication of the likelihood of permission.

Please read the terms of use and guidance below before you email enquiries about publishing Businessballs extracts or materials. Many questions are answered in the information below.

Other than for very short extracts or quotes, the reproduction of Businessballs content on other websites not permitted.

Please note that due to the large volume of requests I receive I am unable to approve publishing requests which fail to state full and precise details of usage.

I am attempting to develop a protocol for the use of Businessballs content on secure educational intranets, and when/if a workable set of rules can be devised for this purpose it will be explained here.

terms of use index

I attempt to improve the clarity of these terms from time to time. The current version is always shown on this page.

businessballs.com main website

Use of Businessballs.com materials


Publishing and reproduction requests and submission format

Attribution guidelines

Searching for Businessballs.com materials and references

Linking to the Businessballs.com website and content

Privacy statement


These terms and conditions extend to the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs.

community.businessballs.com and space.businessballs.com

These sub-domains have been discontinued.

use of materials on this website

(also extending to the use of materials on the quizballs.com website operated by businessballs)

Overview (more detail follows, and subject to the restrictions below):

  • You may use Businessballs materials free of cost, for education, training, presentations, organizational development, and related low-scale reproduction in notes and handouts, etc., provided you reference the source material appropriately.
  • The use of Businessballs materials where the main purpose is publishing and/or profit - in printed, digital or online media - is restricted to extracts and subject to permission.
  • The reproduction of Businessballs content on other websites not permitted. (I am attempting to develop a protocol for the use of Businessballs content on secure educational intranets, and when/if a workable set of rules can be devised for this purpose it will be explained here.)
  • These terms extend to the use of materials on the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs, in which case the Quizballs website name (quizballs.com) should be substituted (in place of businessballs.com) when forming links, attributions, and copyright notices as appropriate.

In more detail:

For self-help and study: Subject to the restrictions below, content and materials on the Businessballs website are free to read, download, keep, print, copy, cut and paste for your own personal education and study, curiosity, information, amusement, and self-development, provided you retain/include copyright and disclaimer details as shown on the relevant Businessballs page(s). Where you use or adapt sample material for your own personal letters, CVs or resumes, you do not need to show the copyright or source of the material on your documents.

For helping, developing and services to others: In general (and again subject to the restrictions below) Businessballs materials are free to use for anyone in education, personal development, management, leadership and organizational development (teachers, trainers, lecturers, coaches, team-leaders, managers, leaders, advisors, consultants, therapists, counsellors, etc) within your own materials, services and methods, for example presentations, reports, research, workbooks, handouts, course notes, powerpoint and overhead projection slides. For these purposes you can print, copy, cut and paste or adapt the materials from this website. For this usage please show the appropriate copyright, website source and disclaimer details relating to the material(s) in question. Where space is limited you can use or adapt the short-form notice and disclaimer below.

The reproduction of Businessballs materials for sale or as part of any provision where the materials are sold is not allowed without permission. See the publishing and reproduction request submission format below.

Subject to the restrictions below the reproduction of Businessballs materials in dissertations and essays is generally permitted but this does not extend to online publication, and this permission does not extend to the sort of open-ended global rights that certain educational publishers seek when publishing educational dissertations. See the note below about dissertations and essays.

Where you using the materials in helping or services to others you must always include clearly in the materials and/or presentation details of copyright, website and/or webpage address (which must be linked to www.businessballs.com if in electronic presentation format), and a suitable disclaimer as shown on the relevant Businessballs page(s).

Where space is limited you can use or adapt the short-form notice and disclaimer below for the above purpose.

If in doubt check the terms stated on the content, and also on the terms of the website or subdomain in which the content features, and ultimately if necessary, please ask.

N.B. These terms extend to the use of materials on the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs, in which case the Quizballs website name (quizballs.com) should be substituted (in place of businessballs.com) when forming links, attributions, and copyright notices as appropriate.

dissertations and essays

Subject to the attribution requirements and restrictions below including consideration for protected IP owned by other people (3rd parties), you can reproduce Businessballs materials in essays and dissertations in printed format and for limited distribution of up to 100 copies.

Beyond this, for example online publication or sale of work, specific permission is required.

In which case you will make it quicker and easier for me to agree to the inclusion of Businessballs material if you:

  • explain how you intend to use the material in your work, so I can see the context, and
  • ensure the use and referencing of the material will encourage readers to visit the website and the full source material on the Businessballs website.

For example, insertion of a reduced-size copy of a Businessballs diagram or tool embedded in your work - plus reference details encouraging the reader to see the original fully detailed diagram/tool on the Businessballs website - is more likely to be acceptable than requesting simply to 'use the material', or 'reprint the diagram', or 'reproduce the material'.

Online reproduction of full-sized and fully detailed Businessballs materials is generally not permitted. Online reproduction of reduced size or extracted Businessballs materials, embedded or incorporated within your work and clearly referenced and linked to the original full Businessballs material webpage(s) can more easily be allowed.

In the case of tools and tests, permission can generally be given for the inclusion of an embedded extract or example of a completed test/tool, but not for the full replication of the blank test or working file.

There seems an increasing trend and requirement for student dissertations to be published via specialist online publishers. Whether such publishers are non-profit or otherwise, if the terms of such publishers effectively demand open-ended and/or commercial rights it is unlikely that approval can be considered unless the treatment of the material in question meets the criteria above.


Content and materials on Businessballs may not be sold, or published in any form, without permission from the content owner. (See publishing and reproduction requests.) Publishing in this context means making generally available in books or other media, beyond the typical provision of internal or supplier-to-client teaching and training activities. If in doubt ask.

Certain usage for dissertations and essays does not require specific permission, subject to the attribution requirements and restrictions here including consideration for protected IP owned by other people (3rd parties).

While broadly the free use of Businessballs materials in delivering teaching and training is allowed, the reproduction of the materials for sale is a different matter and subject to permission, which in most cases is unlikely to be given.

You are not permitted to download or otherwise obtain any of the website infrastructure (e.g., website directories or functional code) by the use of specialised software or any other method.

You are not permitted to distribute or circulate any materials as electronic copies (for example via CD, DVD, flash-drives, email, file-sharing sites, e-learning programs). If your usage or training delivery format employs any of these electronic methods you should provide access to Businessballs materials via links, which also ensures that people see the up-to-date versions, and reduces unauthorised copying and proliferation.

Use of 3rd-party protected Intellectual Property: Caution is recommended if you propose to use or exploit 3rd-party intellectual property ('IP' - protected materials, trademarks, etc., belonging to other people) which appears on this website. Obvious examples are trademarks (and terminology relating thereto) such as Situational Leadership®, Stephen Covey's Seven Habits of Highly Effective People®, SPIN Selling®, Sharon Drew Morgen's Buying Facilitation®, Myers Brigg's (MBTI) Type Indicator®, and similarly protected systems for which licenses are most definitely required, should you seek to publish or provide commercial services or products that exploit such IP. The fact that other non-trademarked models and names are mentioned or referenced on this website does not necessarily mean that they can be used freely for any sort of commercial purpose. Typically a brief reference to 3rd-party owned/protected concepts is regarded as fair use in teaching and training, but if you are deemed to be actually training or exploiting the concept without a licence or permission from the IP owner then you could create a liability for yourself/your organization. Different levels of protection apply to different concepts, and usage laws vary in different countries and I cannot advise nor accept liability in this regard (see the disclaimer). Effort has been made on this website to point out the trademarked and strongly protected concepts, however, depending on your usage, any 3rd party concept (e.g., Maslow, Kolb, Tuckman, Johari, etc) can give rise to copyright liabilities, especially if your usage seeks to profit directly from the publishing or exploitation of the concept. If in doubt seek qualified advice and/or contact the owner of the material or trademark concerned to see if your proposed usage requires particular permission or licensing.

Disclaimer: Reliance on information, material, advice, or other linked or recommended resources, received from Alan Chapman, shall be at your sole risk, and Alan Chapman assumes no responsibility for any errors, omissions, or damages arising. Users of this website are encouraged to confirm information received with other sources, and to seek local qualified advice if embarking on any actions that could carry personal or organisational liabilities. Managing people and relationships are sensitive activities; the free material and advice available via this website do not provide all necessary safeguards and checks. When using these materials (especially for commercial training purposes) you must decide if your usage is 'fair use' within your local law relating to copyright. The free provision of these materials on this website does not imply that the works can be exploited for profit without seeking permission from respective owners of original concepts, theories and other intellectual property. If in doubt about your usage seek qualified advice and/or permission from the owner of the IP concerned. Please read the notice (generally at the foot) on each webpage and resource about usage, copyright, material accuracy, and liability.

publishing and reproduction requests

The content and materials on the Businessballs website are not to be sold or published in any form (other than the use of short extracts for review purposes) including reproduction of any Businessballs materials on other websites or intra/extranets, blogs, in books for sale, magazines and newspapers, newsletters and e-newsletters, advertising or other 'distributed' media.

N.B. These terms extend to the use of materials on the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs.

Certain usage for dissertations and essays does not require specific permission, subject to the attribution requirements and restrictions above including consideration for protected IP owned by other people (3rd parties).

For newsletters, websites, magazines, books, etc., under certain circumstances publishing of extracts (200-500 words) can be agreed, according to submission and approval of the criteria listed below. In such cases the extract must be shown with a strongly visible link to the full source material URL on the Businessballs website, and carry a suitable attribution statement, and a link to the Businessballs website itself.

Publication approval also requires the requesting author/publisher to indemnify (protect) Businessballs against any liabilities arising from the author/publisher's use of the material.

If in doubt please ask.

Also if necessary seek local qualified legal advice about your usage.

Due to the volume of enquires I cannot approve publishing requests that do not include the details below concisely and clearly presented. Publishing requests whose main purpose is revenue or profit generation are rarely approved. Publishing requests whose main purpose is education tend to be more successful, especially if restricted to extracts.

If you have a publishing request please contact us with the following details:

  1. Clear and full detail(s) and sample of the material/extract you seek to use - ideally attach the extract as a doc or pdf file, or include the extract within the body of your email.
  2. Details of your publication and example/draft to show style and context of your proposed usage.
  3. The purpose(s) of your work/publication - for you/your organization/your audience - as applicable.
  4. Details of writer/author/publisher/organization and ownership, as applicable for your work/publication.
  5. Your media format(s) (e.g., printed publication, DVD, internet website, intranet website, etc) - NOTE: the usage 'electronic rights' or any similarly open-ended description of format/distribution is not acceptable - reproduction formats must be specifically described.
  6. Your circulation/distribution/readership/audience - description and scale.
  7. Your pricing and other commercial/financial details.
  8. Your proposed referencing and linking to the Businessballs website and related content, including statement of attribution, copyright, disclaimer, and position of this in relation to material in question within your own work/publication.
  9. Indemnification (protection) of content owner(s) against any liabilities arising from your use of the material.
  10. Any other relevant details (for example see the N.B. points below).

Permission is often given to publish dissertations, educational and teaching projects, but is generally not given for projects which primarily seek to exploit the material for profit or promotional purposes.


a) If your proposed publication or reproduction concerns content or a diagram based on a 3rd party concept (for example, Maslow, Kolb, Johari, etc) then it is your responsibility to decide whether your particular usage requires permission or licence from the concept owner and I accept no liabilities arising from any usage in this regard. It is also very difficult for me to advise about such matters given the complexities involved.

b) It is not within my rights to grant permission for the commercial publishing/exploitation of 3rd party concepts (for example, Maslow, Kolb, Johari, Myers-Briggs®, etc). Normally publishers expect authors to indemnify (protect) the publisher from liabilities arising from the use of the published work. I can agree to no such indemnification on your behalf.

Subject to all of the above, if you use any of the materials on this website, you may adapt this short-form copyright acknowledgment/disclaimer notice template:

© Alan Chapman/Businessballs [and/or any other shown] [year(s) shown]. Retrieved from www.businessballs.com [year(s) shown]. Full source material at [Businessballs source material webpage address]. Not to be sold or published. Alan Chapman/the author(s)/Businessballs accepts no liability for any issues arising.

If using material which is based on someone else's original concept, e.g., Maslow, Tuckman, Adams, etc., then please state this in the copyright acknowledgment, for example:

© Alan Chapman/Businessballs [and/or other originator shown] [year(s) shown]. Based on the original concept of [name]. Retrieved from www.businessballs.com [year(s) shown]. Full source material at [Businessballs source material webpage]. Not to be sold or published. Alan Chapman/the author(s)/Businessballs accepts no liability for any issues arising.

Note that you must substitute relevant data in the sections indicated by spare brackets. Sorry to state the obvious.

There's some flexibility in this attribution and referencing, and possibly some useful overlap with your own referencing rules.

The important aspects to cover in your attribution as far as this website is concerned are:

  • copyright of the writer(s) and if applicable the originators/owners of the concept;
  • date of publication if shown and/or date of retrieval;
  • the source website and URL (address of file);
  • that the material is not for sale or publication;
  • and to show some sort of disclaimer protecting the author(s) and/or this website from any liabilities arising.

The availability of materials on this website does not infer or imply permission on behalf of any 3rd party IP owners for commercial use of 3rd party intellectual property.

If your organization is 'not-for-profit' or a charity, this does not necessarily mean that your usage is 'non-profit'. If you are selling something, then someone somewhere might one day want a share of your revenues if they consider you have exploited their work without permission.

If in doubt always check with the IP owner, and if necessary seek qualified legal advice about your particular usage.

N.B. These terms extend to the use of materials on the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs, in which case the Quizballs website name (quizballs.com) should be substituted (in place of businessballs.com) when forming links, attributions, and copyright notices as appropriate.

Crown Copyright material - There is a small amount of licensed protected Crown Copyright material on Businessballs (Crown Copyright applies to materials owned by the UK government and its agencies). Crown Copyright material is indicated as such where it appears in this website (for example, the quality management case studies). Here are guidelines for the use of Crown Copyright material: Other than the Royal Arms and departmental or agency logos, Crown Copyright material may be used or reproduced for learning purposes free of charge in any format or medium - unless instructions appear to the contrary - provided it is used and reproduced accurately and not in a misleading context. Publication of Crown Copyright material requires a Crown Copyright licence, which varies according to the type and source of the material, details of which are available from opsi.gov.uk (Office of Public Sector Information). Where any of the Crown Copyright items on this website are issued or reproduced, the source of the material must be identified and the copyright status acknowledged. Full details about Crown Copyright are available from opsi.gov.uk.

searching on businessballs

The scrollable left menu on each page contains some of the main subject headings but shows only a small fraction of all content on the website.

The Google site-search tool at the top of each page is very effective for detailed searches.

Fuller indexes are on the main index page, and the site map page.

The recently added articles list on the home page shows the main additions to that part of the website site.

There is also an archive of 'recently added' items dating back to January 2006.

linking to businessballs

If you want to put a navigation link on your website, or in a website posting, or in a 'Tweet' or blog, etc., to the Businessballs website or to any webpage/resource within it please do - you've no need to ask for permission. Please ensure linked Businessballs pages appear in a new browser window. Content links (hotlinks) are not permitted.

You are similarly permitted to offer (or list or publish) a link or links to the Businessballs website and/or Businessballs webpages and resources, within your own printed or electronic media, for example in books, training materials and manuals, leaflets and posters, etc., and no separate permission is required for this.

These terms extend to the use of materials on the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs.

privacy statement

Businessballs does not use cookies to track the habits of people who use the Businessballs website.*

When you visit the site you are not monitored by me or the website in any way, and unless you contact me then you remain unknown to me.

If you contact me I do not keep your email address and personal details other than while correspondence is ongoing, or there is a probable need or request for corresponding in the future.

If you contact me your personal details are kept private and would never be divulged to anyone else without your permission.

These terms extend to the use of materials on the Quizballs.com website operated by Businessballs.

*Google operates 'interest-based advertising' methods, which may use anonymous information (i.e., not including names, addresses, email addresses or telephone numbers) about visits to this and other websites in order to improve the relevance of adverts for visitors. See Google's information about interest-based advertising, and see Google's privacy information and opt-out option in this regard.

businessballs contact and address details

Feedback and queries are welcomed about anything related to this website.

Email, phone and postal address details are on the contact us page.


businessballs posters

Please help to spread the word about the Businessballs website.

Click on the pics to open/save/print the pdf posters.


businessballs poster landscape

businessballs poster portrait


Here are the posters with the US-English spelling of 'organizational'.

Again click on the pic to open and download the pdf poster.

businessballs poster us

businessballs poster us


businessballs original juggling balls