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What is the JD-R Model?

What does JD-R Stand for?

The Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R) is a model that explores employee well-being. It is used by managers to predict employee engagement and employee burnout. 

The model categorises working conditions into two groups:

  1. Job demands  
  2. Job resources/positives.

How does the JD-R Model Work?

This model essentially states that when job demands are high and job resources are low then factors such as stress and burnout are increased. Alternatively, when job demands are high and job resources are high then factors such as work engagement and performance levels are improved. 


This is a very powerful combination in the workplace and is the ideal situation you will want all team members to be in. When employees are on this level of engagement and job satisfaction their performance allows them to generate personal resources (self-esteem, optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, multi-skilling), which will buffer performance.

Job Demands

  • Work pressure and heavy workload
  • Emotional, physical and psychological demands
  • Stress levels

Job Resources/Positives

  • Career and personal development opportunities
  • Training, mentoring and coaching
  • Regular feedback

JD-R Model Practical Application

  1. Identify Job demands
  2. Address Job demands
  3. Identify potential Job resources/positives
  4. Address job resources/positives


Bakker and Demerouti, (2007). The JD-R Model.  Available at: [Accessed 30th June 2020].